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The extension of [13] was also one year, but by until June 30, Extension [14]. Generally, a Republican controlled Congress would prefer higher tariffs and a Democrat controlled Congress would prefer lower tariffs. Another key feature of the RTAA was the fact that if Congress wanted to repeal a tariff reduction, it would take a two-thirds supermajority. Instead, countries started to realize the gains from trade cooperation. In short, the political incentive to raise tariffs decreased while the political incentive to lower tariffs increased. Once enacted, tariff reductions tended to stick.

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Instead, countries started to realize the gains from trade cooperation. Before the RTAA, if Congress wanted to establish a lower tariff for particular importsit would act unilaterally, taking the foreign country’s tariff rate as fixed. The Journal of Political Philosophy. As more American industries began to benefit from tariff reductions, some of them began to lobby Congress for lower tariffs. Congress would choose a tariff rate that was either a little higher or lower than the median preferred tariff, depending upon the composition of the Congress.

Tax Acts of the United States.


The President had to consider the aggregate welfare of all Americans, his foreign policy priorities, and what was feasible with other countries in making his decisions on tariffs. The Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act, which has been updated intermittently untilis a multilateral trade negotiation in GATT [16] and negotiations with new member states [17]. This law enabled Roosevelt to liberalize American trade policy around the globe. Politics, Coalitions, and International Trade.

By the s, there was no statistically significant difference between Republicans and Democrats on tariff policies. At the same time, countries in Europe enacted protectionist policies.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Smoot-Hawley Act was a smorgasbord of high tariffs across many American industries.

During their brief rtwa in the majority, Democrats passed several tariff reduction bills. Once enacted, tariff reductions tended to stick. First, it tied tariff reductions by the United States to reciprocal tariff reductions with international partners.

Reciprocal Tariff Act

By the Great Depression, tariffs were at historic highs. World trade expanded at a rapid pace. In short, the political incentive to raise tariffs decreased rtaa the political incentive to lower tariffs increased.

World Politics, Volume 49, No. It is widely credited with ushering in the era of liberal trade policy that persisted through the 20th century. At no point did anyone take into account the aggregate toll on American consumers or exporters. This left a huge global production vacuum that was filled by American exporters.


In response to the Great DepressionCongress accelerated its protectionist policies, culminating in the Smoot—Hawley Act of These considerations generally left presidents more inclined to reduce tariffs than the Congress. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. It also allowed Congress to approve the tariffs with a simple majorityas opposed to the requisite two-thirds majority necessary for other treaties.

Reciprocal Tariff Act – Wikipedia

Thus, tariffs were chosen based on the domestic politics of the United States. Reciprocity was an important tenet of the trade agreements brokered under RTAA because it gave Congress more of an incentive to lower tariffs. This page was last edited on 21 Rtqaat This change has endured to the present day.

In rtaz, the Extension Act stipulates that Article 2 itself will extend the time limit. This practice is commonly referred to as logrolling. Led by the United States and the United Kingdom, international cooperation flourished and concrete institutions were created. Retrieved from ” https: President Roosevelt and key members of his administration were intent on stopping this practice.